Psychologists who engage in such activity after the two years following cessation or termination of therapy and of having no sexual contact with the former client/patient bear the burden of demonstrating that there has been no exploitation, in light of all relevant factors, including (1) the amount of time that has passed since therapy terminated; (2) the nature, duration, and intensity of the therapy; (3) the circumstances of termination; (4) the client's/patient's personal history; (5) the client's/patient's current mental status; (6) the likelihood of adverse impact on the client/patient; and (7) any statements or actions made by the therapist during the course of therapy suggesting or inviting the possibility of a posttermination sexual or romantic relationship with the client/patient. If you are providing psychological services you are obligated to remain informed regarding current ethical standards or issues. Damage or theft of devices 4. When interpreting assessment results, including automated interpretations, psychologists take into account the purpose of the assessment as well as the various test factors, test-taking abilities, and other characteristics of the person being assessed, such as situational, personal, linguistic, and cultural differences, that might affect psychologists' judgments or reduce the accuracy of their interpretations. If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Cultural Bias 1 Controversies in Psychology: Ethical Costs of Conducting Research (pg 162-163) What I will need to know: Be able to describe the issue of ethical costs in psychology Evaluate the issue of ethical costs in psychology (See also Standards 2.01e, Boundaries of Competence, and 10.01b, Informed Consent to Therapy. 5.02 Statements by Others (See also Standard 3.05, Multiple Relationships.). American Psychological Association. 7.05 Mandatory Individual or Group Therapy Unsecured electronic files 6. Psychologists discuss these issues with the client/patient or another legally authorized person on behalf of the client/patient in order to minimize the risk of confusion and conflict, consult with the other service providers when appropriate, and proceed with caution and sensitivity to the therapeutic issues. Q2 Modern ethics has derived from several historical events. 3.04 Avoiding Harm When, despite reasonable efforts, such an examination is not practical, psychologists document the efforts they made and the result of those efforts, clarify the probable impact of their limited information on the reliability and validity of their opinions, and appropriately limit the nature and extent of their conclusions or recommendations. This is especially prevalent with research that is ‘socially sensitive’. Revision of ethical standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as amended 2010). (a) When obtaining informed consent to therapy as required in Standard 3.10, Informed Consent, psychologists inform clients/patients as early as is feasible in the therapeutic relationship about the nature and anticipated course of therapy, fees, involvement of third parties, and limits of confidentiality and provide sufficient opportunity for the client/patient to ask questions and receive answers. Implications are effects or consequences, and in this section you need to understand the consequences of research studies and theory. When consulting with colleagues, (1) psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the identification of a client/patient, research participant, or other person or organization with whom they have a confidential relationship unless they have obtained the prior consent of the person or organization or the disclosure cannot be avoided, and (2) they disclose information only to the extent necessary to achieve the purposes of the consultation. ), (e) If the recipient of services does not pay for services as agreed, and if psychologists intend to use collection agencies or legal measures to collect the fees, psychologists first inform the person that such measures will be taken and provide that person an opportunity to make prompt payment. American Psychologist, 18, 56-60. An important step in becoming a mental health professional or consumer of psychological services is to be aware of the ethical issues faced by psychologists. If psychologists' ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists make known their commitment to this Ethics Code and take steps to resolve the conflict in a responsible manner in keeping with basic principles of human rights. 10.04 Providing Therapy to Those Served by Others They do not only feature as an area of study in their own right, but all psychological research is increasingly under scrutiny with regard to its ethical implications. All rights reserved. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and... Rules and Procedures of the APA Ethics Committee, 1.02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority, 1.03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands, 1.04, Informal Resolution of Ethical Violations, 1.08, Unfair Discrimination Against Complainants and Respondents, 7.07, Sexual Relationships with Students and Supervisees, 10.05, Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.06, Sexual Intimacies with Relatives or Significant Others of Current Therapy Clients/Patients, 10.07, Therapy with Former Sexual Partners, 10.08, Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients, 6.02c, Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work, 8.03, Informed Consent for Recording Voices and Images in Research, 8.05, Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research, 2.04, Bases for Scientific and Professional Judgments, 6.01, Documentation of Professional and Scientific Work and Maintenance of Records, 3.12, Interruption of Psychological Services, 3.09, Cooperation with Other Professionals, 5.03, Descriptions of Workshops and Non-Degree-Granting Educational Programs, 5.01, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 7.02, Descriptions of Education and Training Programs, 5.01a, Avoidance of False or Deceptive Statements, 4.02, Discussing the Limits of Confidentiality, 2018 APA Ethics Committee Rules and Procedures, APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2017), Revision of Ethical Standard 3.04 of the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (2002, as Amended 2010), 2010 Amendments to the 2002 "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct", © 2020 American Psychological Association. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat or engage in fraud, subterfuge, or intentional misrepresentation of fact. On the other hand, they may encounter with many ethical dilemmas while doing these assessments. Of course, they exist in all forms of counseling, from short … Boston House, 10.08 Sexual Intimacies with Former Therapy Clients/Patients Against this backdrop, handbook contributors investigate the complexities of ethical behavior in clinical, educational, forensic, health, and "tele-" psychology. 8.15 Reviewers Ethical Implications and Social Sensitivity - for AQA spec Alevel Psychology, paper 3 Psych Boost. Ethical Implications of Research Studies: If you consider Milgram’s (1963) research, you need to consider whether the ‘ends justify the means’. Pursuant to a client/patient release, psychologists provide test data to the client/patient or other persons identified in the release. Under no circumstances may this standard be used to justify or defend violating human rights. MODULE 1 Q1 What do you perceive as the most significant ethical developments and practices of the last 50 years in the psychology field? This standard does not preclude an instructor from modifying course content or requirements when the instructor considers it pedagogically necessary or desirable, so long as students are made aware of these modifications in a manner that enables them to fulfill course requirements. Ethical considerations in psychology. 7.02 Descriptions of Education and Training Programs Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making. Health Care Ethics For Psychologists: A Casebook explores the ethical questions encountered most often by practitioners in health care settings. Ethical standards of psychologists. (See also Standard 4.01, Maintaining Confidentiality. The APA has previously published its Ethics Code as follows: American Psychological Association. Please, No Plagiarized work. An ethical issue that needs to be considered when conducting psychological research is that the experimenter or investigator should not expose their participants to physical or mental harm that is considered to be greater than that is … Ethics Ethics are the moral codes laid down by professionals to ensure that their members or representatives adhere to certain standards of behaviour. In year one you studied ethical issues in psychological research, for example deception, informed consent, protection from harm, etc. The Ethical Standards set forth enforceable rules for conduct as psychologists. Barter is the acceptance of goods, services, or other nonmonetary remuneration from clients/patients in return for psychological services. Principle C: Integrity Minor contributions to the research or to the writing for publications are acknowledged appropriately, such as in footnotes or in an introductory statement. Discuss ethical implications of research studies and theory including reference to social sensitivity 16 marks.This is essentially a full 16-mark question which is all you need for the exam you can also use it to answer all 468 12 mark questions in the exam all you have to do is break it down An ethical issue that needs to be considered when conducting psychological research is that the experimenter or investigator should not expose their participants to physical or mental harm that is considered to be greater than that is … (b) If psychologists discover significant errors in their published data, they take reasonable steps to correct such errors in a correction, retraction, erratum, or other appropriate publication means. (1968). (a) Psychologists maintain confidentiality in creating, storing, accessing, transferring, and disposing of records under their control, whether these are written, automated, or in any other medium. American Psychological Association. This standard does not apply when an intervention would violate confidentiality rights or when psychologists have been retained to review the work of another psychologist whose professional conduct is in question. (b) Psychologists do not deceive prospective participants about research that is reasonably expected to cause physical pain or severe emotional distress. ), 6.02 Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. The question being — should we or should we not kill someone for a crime or crimes they have committed? Ethical Implications of Theories: Bowlby’s Theory of Attachment suggests that children form one special attachment bond, usually with their mother, which must take place within a critical period. (See also Standards 8.02, Informed Consent to Research; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapy.). ), 3.08 Exploitative Relationships 3.07 Third-Party Requests for Services 2.02 Providing Services in Emergencies If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make known their commitment to the Ethics Code, and take reasonable steps to resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. In addition, APA may take action against a member after his or her conviction of a felony, expulsion or suspension from an affiliated state psychological association, or suspension or loss of licensure. (See also Standards 8.02, Informed Consent to Research; 9.03, Informed Consent in Assessments; and 10.01, Informed Consent to Therapy.). Failure to cooperate is itself an ethics violation. (b) When offering professional services as an inducement for research participation, psychologists clarify the nature of the services, as well as the risks, obligations, and limitations. (c) When psychologists conduct a record review or provide consultation or supervision and an individual examination is not warranted or necessary for the opinion, psychologists explain this and the sources of information on which they based their conclusions and recommendations. This does not preclude taking action based upon the outcome of such proceedings or considering other appropriate information. 01 Boundaries of Competence. Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility (b) If confidential information concerning recipients of psychological services is entered into databases or systems of records available to persons whose access has not been consented to by the recipient, psychologists use coding or other techniques to avoid the inclusion of personal identifiers. (a) When psychologists agree to provide services to several persons who have a relationship (such as spouses, significant others, or parents and children), they take reasonable steps to clarify at the outset (1) which of the individuals are clients/patients and (2) the relationship the psychologist will have with each person. (a) When psychologists conduct research with clients/patients, students, or subordinates as participants, psychologists take steps to protect the prospective participants from adverse consequences of declining or withdrawing from participation. 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